The fight against the virus COVID-19 had seen a vaccine progress move at a record speed, with over 170 different vaccines that were on trials. But how did these vaccines become different from one another and how these vaccines will protect us against this disease?
There are a lot of vaccine candidates all together in the pipeline to this COVID-19 disease than with any other before for a transferable disease. Each one of them is attempting on achieving the similar thing – immunity to the COVID19virus, and some can also be able of stopping its transmission. It will do so through energizing the immune response to the antigen, the molecule located on a virus. In this COVID19 case, the antigen is usually a characteristic spike protein located at the surface of a virus, which it typically uses to assist it to invade the human cells.
Four major types of the COVID-19 vaccines
There are four groups of vaccines in the clinical trials. Some of them tried to smuggle this antigen into a body, others are using the body’s own cell to create a viral antigen.
1. Whole virus – Many conservative vaccines used the whole viruses for triggering the immune response. It has two main methods. Live attenuated vaccines used the weakened form of a virus that may still replicate without the need to cause illness. Inactivated vaccine is used virus whose genetic material had been destroyed so that they may not replicate, but may still trigger the immune response. Both kinds use the well-recognized technology and pathway for regulatory approval, however, the live attenuated ones can harm causing disease to people with weaker immune systems and usually required careful cold storage, building their use even more challenging in lower-resource countries. The inactivated virus vaccine will be given to those people with negotiated immune systems; however, it might also need some cold storage.
2. Protein subunit – Subunit vaccine is using the pieces of pathogen – usually fragments of protein – in triggering the immune response. By doing so, will minimize the danger of side effects, however, this will also mean that the immune response can be weaker. It is why they normally require adjuvants, to assist in boosting the immune response. The example of the present subunit vaccine is hepatitis B vaccine.
3. Nucleic acid (DNA AND RNA) – Nucleic acid vaccines use genetic material – either the DNA or the RNA – to give cells with the directions to create an antigen. In the instance of COVID-19, it is typically the viral spike proteins. Once the genetic material steps in the human cells, it utilizes the cells’ protein factories in making an antigen that can trigger the immune response. The benefits of certain vaccines that they are simple to make and affordable and since an antigen is made inside our own cell and in bigger quantities, an immune reaction must be tough. However, the downside is that, until now, no RNA or DNA vaccines had been licensed for the human use that will cause more difficulties with the regulatory approval. Additionally, the RNA vaccines needed to be kept in an ultra-cold temperatures, either -70C or even lower, that could prove demanding for countries that do not have special cold storage equipment, mainly in middle-and low-income countries.
4. Viral vector – these vaccines also worked through providing cells, genetic instruction in producing antigens. But they vary from the nucleic acid vaccine in that they utilize a harmless virus, unlike the one that a vaccine is targeting, in giving these instructions to the cell. One kind of virus that had usually been used as the vector is adenovirus that causes the common colds. As with the nucleic acid vaccine, our personal cellular machinery is being hijacked to make the antigen from the instructions, in turn of triggering the immune response. The viral vector vaccine will mimic the natural viral infections and must therefore trigger stronger immune responses. But, since there is this chance that lots of people can be already exposed to a virus being used as the vectors, some can be immune into it, making a vaccine less efficient.
The COVID-19 vaccines that are available in the US protecting and are effective for people—especially those that are boosted— from receiving severely ill, hospitalized and dying people. As with the other illnesses you are better protected from COVID-19 if you will stay updated with the suggested vaccines.
The four COVID-19 vaccines had been authorized and approved in the US to prevent the COVID-19: Pfizer-BioNTech, J&J/Janssen, Moderna, and Novavax. It’s suggested that the J&J/Janssen vaccine only be taken into consideration in some instances.
When Are You Updated?
You’re updated with the COVID-19 vaccines if you have taken all the doses in the first series and all the boosters suggested for you, when entitled.
Vaccine suggestions are based on the age, the first vaccine you received, and the time of the last dose. People that are severely or moderately immunocompromised have unlike recommendations for the COVID-19 vaccines.
The 5 brand names of COVID-19 vaccines
The COVID-19 vaccines had been a portion of the everyday conversations, and yet people seldom refer to them through their brand names.
Below are the clarifications of the brand chosen for the 5 COVID-19 vaccines base on the Endpoints News Reports:
Pfizer’s COVID-19, Comirnaty vaccine: The name symbolizes the combination of the words COVID-19, community, immunity and mRNA.
Moderna’s COVID-19, Spikevax vaccine: The major part of the label referred to a “spike” glycoprotein on coronavirus.
AstraZeneca’s COVID-19, Vaxzevria vaccine: With the “Evri” sound included in its name is aimed to communicate that a vaccine is for everybody.
Novavax’s COVID-19, Nuvaxovid vaccine: This vaccine name was styled to allocate the same cadence to a drug maker’s name with no explicit association.
Sanofi and GlaxoSmithKline, Vidprevtyn COVID-19 vaccine: This is the primary syllable of the label likely referred to the COVID-19, and a second syllable is seemed to represent illness prevention, based on the report.
Mixing the COVID-19 Vaccines with other products
Primary vaccines – CDC does not suggest mixing products for the primary series doses. When you take Pfizer-BioNTech, Novavax or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines for your first dose series, you should receive the same series for all of the following series doses.
Boosters – Respondents that are 18 years and above can get a different shot for their booster than what they got in the primary vaccines as long as these are Moderna, J&J/Janssen or Pfizer-BioNTech. Teens and children ages 5 to 17 years that got the Pfizer-BioNTech first series must also take the Pfizer-BioNTech for their booster.
Novavax isn’t allowed to be used for the booster dose!